Producer Price Index (PPI)


The official indicator of production prices in the American economy is the Producer Price Index (PPI). It calculates the typical change in selling prices for products that manufacturers get.


What Is PPI?

The Producer Price Index (PPI) is a group of indices that are released monthly and track the average change in prices paid to U.S.-based producers of products over time.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics originally started publishing the PPI in 1891 when the Senate Committee on Finance sought to know how tariff regulations affected:


“the development, production, and costs of manufactured and agricultural goods”


The PPI data set consists of over 100,000 price quotes from over 25,000 businesses that voluntarily submit their selling prices on the Tuesday of the week preceding the 13th of each month. The second full week of the month after the reference date is when the producer price indices are released.

What Is the WPI? The PPI was formerly called the Wholesale Price Index until 1978. (WPI). Along with a nomenclature change, the “stage-of-processing” (SOP) system of three indexes that characterized different phases of production replaced the previous index that covered the whole U.S. economy. The FD-ID system, which is detailed in more detail below, took the place of the SOP system in 2014. Furthermore, the moniker “Wholesale Price Index” was inaccurate because it never tracked price fluctuations in the wholesale sector.

What PPI MeasuresThe BLS, which monitors the production of practically all industries within sectors that produce commodities, including mining, manufacturing, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, natural gas, power, construction, and items specially created for the U.S. military, receives voluntary data from producers. Each month, 10,000 PPIs are published for both specific items and groupings of products.

In the service sector, the PPI tracks price movements in 72 percent of all industries, including:


  • retail and wholesale trading
  • warehousing and transportation
  • Information
  • Insurance and finance
  • Brokering, renting, and leasing real estate


services that are expert, scientific, and technological


administration, help, healthcare, and social services


the handling of waste

Although imports are not measured by the PPI, price indices for both imports and exports are published by the BLS’s International Price Program.

The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), which was created with Canada and Mexico to classify producers by industry based on their activities, replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system that the PPI used for organizing its data for more than 20 years in January 2004.

How the PPI Is Calculated: 3 Components

Each index measures price changes from a base point of 100, and changes in price indexes from one month to the next are reported as percentage changes. For instance, an index level of 110 indicates that prices have increased by 10% since the base point.

The Producer Pricing Index family of indexes has three major classes, each with its own history, structure, and purposes, despite the fact that they all rely on the same price data. There are categories.


  1. Industry classification industry’s producer price index tracks changes in pricing for products or services sold from one sector to another. About 535 industry pricing indexes comprising more than 4,000 particular product line and product category sub-indexes are published using North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) index codes, and 500 indexes are produced for groups of industries.
  2. Commodity ClassificationNo matter how an industry is classified, the commodity classification groups goods and services based on similarities in their material composition, such as coal or crude oil; more than 3,700 seasonally adjusted and unseasonally adjusted commodity price indexes for goods and about 800 for services are published.
  3. Commodity-Based Final Demand-Intermediate Demand (FD-ID) ClassificationCommodity-based The FD-ID price indexes are a set of commodity indices for commodities, services, and construction at the sub-product level, arranged according to the kind of purchaser and the degree of physical processing or assembly that the items have through. These are items that will be sold to other manufacturers while they are still in the manufacturing process. Examples include steel which will be shaped into products and cotton which will be turned into textiles.

More than 600 FD-ID indices are issued each month and measure price change for products, services, and construction sold to final demand and to intermediate demand. The FD-ID system superseded the prior “stage-of-processing” method in January 2014. The final demand component tracks price changes for goods bought for personal use, business investment, and government procurement, and analyzes PPI Numbers & ReportsUsing the examination of PPI data and reports,

a factor that forecasts consumer prices: PPI data is used by Congress, the President, and the Federal Reserve to create monetary policy since it foreshadows price changes for both companies and consumers because PPIs catch pricing fluctuations before the retail level.


a gauge of price change for certain markets and goods: The following was stated in the April 2022 PPI: “Product detail: Prices for truck transportation of freight increased by 4.4 percent in April, according to the index for final demand services. Retailing of vehicle fuels and lubricants, passenger transportation (partially), hospital outpatient care, and loan services (partially) all had increases in their respective indices. In contrast, retail margins for health, beauty, and optical items decreased by 1.3%.


Producer Price Index Example

An interesting example is the PPI for software publication.

Both the recession caused by the Covid epidemic in March 2020 and the Great Recession of 2008 are depicted in grey. According to the PPI statistics, prices for software publishers sharply rose until they peaked at the end of 2020 before declining again. According to the PPI statistics, stockholders who bought these firms’ stock in 2020 would have done handsomely. Prices have been fluctuating since the beginning of 2022.

Producer Price Index vs. Consumer Price Index

The U.S. Consumer Price Index (CPI) and changes in the PPI frequently fluctuate independently of one another. While the CPI monitors the cost of living, the PPI measures the actual increase in output. It is known as inflation when prices in these indices increase, and it is known as deflation when prices decrease, which is a rare occurrence.

Bottom Line

The opening sentence of the Producer Price Index News Release on May 12, 2022, sums it all up: “Seasonally adjusted, the Producer Price Index for Final Demand climbed 0.5 percent in April. This increase came after gains of 1.1% in February and 1.6% in March. Final demand prices increased 11.0 percent for the year that ended in April on an unadjusted basis.”


Consumers all across the world are feeling the effects of this surge, which is reflected in the price of products and services.


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